Nightingales are usually skulking among hedges and scrub, but if seen are remarkably disappointing as they are plain brown with paler underparts. Their song, however, is far from disappointing, in fact, it is outstanding.
The Nightingale's plumage is plain brown with a reddish-brown rump and tail. The throat is whitish and the underparts are grey-brown. The large black eye is made more prominent by a pale eye-ring. The bill is dark brown and the legs pale brown.
They are larger than a Robin with which it can be confused:
In flight, Nightingales look like Redstarts but these have paler red tails with a dark centre.
|Scientific Name||Luscinia megarhychos|
|Length||14 cm (5½")|
|Wing Span||20-22.5 cm (8-9")|
|Weight||15-23 g (½-¾ oz)|
The beautiful song is remarkable, being powerful, melodious, sweet, rich and varied.
The alarm call is a croaking "krrr".
Insects form the greater part of the Nightingale's diet, which it finds mostly on the ground. In the autumn they will eat berries.
The nest is usually sited on the ground among leaf litter and twigs in undergrowth among dense shrubbery in woods, coppices, orchards and gardens. The nest is constructed by the female from dead leaves and grass, and lined with fine grasses and hair.
The smooth, glossy eggs are olive-brown and about 21 mm by 15 mm. Incubation is by the female only. The young are fed by both parents.
|Breeding Starts||Clutches||Eggs||Incubation (days)||Fledge (days)|
The Nightingale is a scarce summer visitor to southern England (roughly south of a line from the Humber to the Severn). They usually arrive in April and leave around August to September. They winter in central tropical Africa.
In Britain, the Nightingale is at the northern limit of its breeding range, but the decline in coppicing, changes in woodland management, increased grazing by deer and colder and wetter springs have contracted both the breeding range and population.
Additionally, the Nightingale may be struggling on its wintering grounds (Africa).
Consequently, the Nightingale is an Amber List species.